The COVID-19 disease progression which is not different from sepsis model. A recent publication From the journal Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2020-1761 showed that 70-90% patients had hypoinflammation instead of full blown hyperinflammation which is only 10-30% in stage 3-5. A full cytokine storm manifestation of COVID-19 sepsis is uncommon, but it is more like a cytokine "breeze".
Adapted from Cytokine “storm”, cytokine “breeze”, or both in COVID-19?
Lippi, Giuseppe and Plebani, Mario. "Cytokine “storm”, cytokine “breeze”, or both in COVID-19?" Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), vol. 59, no. 4, 2021, pp. 637-639. https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2020-1761
Based on this study finding, we, Malaysia Sepsis Alliance proposes a model of COVID-19 according to this finding.
According to this new insight, high dose steroid administration for COVID-19 patients shall be highly selected and shall not recommended to majority of COVID-19 patients who more likely to be hypoinflammatory hypoxia ('Silent Hypoxia') (Hui-chin et al 2021)
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